Common foxglove, Digitalis purpurea

Common or purple foxglove is a European biennial plant which was the source of chemicals in the drug digitalis.

Common foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, is a biennial or short-lived herbaceous perennial from western Europe in the plantain family (Plantaginaceae, which now contains the former figwort family, Scrophulariaceae, this used to be part of) that grows in woodland clearings, mountainsides and especially on disturbed sites, as well as being used as a garden ornamental. It was once the source of the heart stimulants digitoxin or digoxin, digitalin, digitalein, and digitonin, cardiac glycosides used in modern medicine in the drug digitalis.

Purple foxglove is an invasive weed in many places, including in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand.

The leaves were used in the treatment of heart failure since 1785, but now the drug is mostly created synthetically. Improper use of foxglove can cause either decreased or increased heart rate and can produce poisoning if used on a prolonged basis, so it should never be used to self-medicate. This plant, also sometimes commonly called purple foxglove, fairy gloves, fairy bells, lady’s glove, or many other things, is widely naturalized outside its native area, commonly near roads, and in some places is considered a weed or invasive plant. It is hardy in zones 4-9.

This plant forms a tight rosette of simple, coarse leaves with prominent veins for a nearly quilted look in its first year.  The ovate to lanceolate leaves with barely noticeable rounded teeth on the margins grow on a winged petiole formed by the lower veins. The alternate leaves, up to a foot long, are covered with gray-white hairs that impart a downy texture on the upper surface and are wooly or hairy below. The clump remains low and close to the ground.

The plant forms a rosette of leaves (L and C) which have prominent veins (R).

In the second year an upright flower stem with smaller leaves is produced from the center of the basal clump. The spikes normally grow 3 to 4 feet tall with the individual flowers opening progressively up the elongated, terminal cluster (a simple or sparsely branched raceme). The species usually has a one-sided raceme with 20-80 flowers, but improved cultivars often have flowers completely surrounding the stem. The downward-facing, tapered, tubular (bell-shaped) flowers have four lobes. Each 1½ to 2½ inch long pink, purple or white corolla (the fused petals) has long hairs inside and is heavily spotted with dark purpled edged in white on the lower lip which serves as a landing platform for pollinators. The flowers are visited by bees – primarily bumblebees – which climb deep into the flower tube to get the nectar which lies in a ring at the base of the tube, and in the process rub against the anthers which lie flat on the upper inside surface of the corolla. When visiting another flower, the pollen rubs off on the cleft stigma. Hummingbirds may also visit the flowers. The flower spikes can be used for cut flowers.

The terminal flower spike (L) has numerous downward-facing bell-shaped flowers (C) heavily spotted inside (R).

Common foxglove blooms mainly in early summer.

The main bloom time is in early summer, but occasionally additional flower stems are produced later in the season, especially if the main flower stalks are cut after blooming. Pollinated flowers are followed by a rounded fruit capsule which splits open at maturity to release the numerous small brown, ridged seeds.Each plant can produce 1-2 million seeds which will readily self-seeding under favorable growing conditions. Deadhead after flowering to avoid excess numbers of seedlings, but some flowers must go to seed to maintain a permanent planting as if they were perennials.

Use common foxglove to add a bold, vertical dimension to perennial flower beds, shade gardens, and cottage gardens, particularly in front of a solid background, such as a building, hedge or shrubs where they will really stand out. They also naturalize readily in woodland gardens. Mass plantings can be very effective.

Use common foxglove in ornamental gardens to add vertical interest.

Grow common foxglove in full sun to light shade. Although it prefers light, moist soils high in organic matter, it will grow in almost any type of soil that is not too dry or too wet. Tall varieties may need to be staked to keep them upright. This plant has few pest problems, and is not bothered by deer or rabbits, although powdery mildew can infect the foliage in late summer and will occasionally be infested with aphids. Plants can become rather ragged looking after they finish flowering, and could be removed from the garden, if desired. All parts of the plant are toxic if ingested and contact with the leaves can irritate sensitive skin.

Sow seed in late summer where plants are desired to grow to bloom the following year, or sow in late spring. Seeds need light to germinate, so do not cover. Thin the seedlings to about 18 inches apart. New seedlings can be easily moved while still small.

Closeup of the very tiny seeds (L), seedlings germinating (C), and very young plant (R).

Common foxglove is naturally quite variable in size and flower color. There are a number of cultivars and a few hybrids commonly available, including:

  • Flowers of ‘Alba’ common foxglove.

    ‘Alba’ has white flowers.

  • The ‘Camelot’ series comes in shades of lavender, rose and white, with 4 foot tall flower spikes.
  • ‘Candy Mountain’ has large, upturned flowers that show the spotting better than other cultivars. The flowers change from rosy-pink to purple as the flowers age on strong stems.
  • ‘Dalmatian Purple’ has deep lavender-purple flowers and frequently blooms in the first year.
  • The ‘Excelsior Hybrids’ series comes in a range of pastel colors. This group has pink, white or yellow flowers that stand out horizontally (instead of being pendant like the species) and surround the stems. It was awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993. It will not come true from seed.
  • ‘Foxy’ is a short-statured selection (2-3 feet in flower) that blooms reliably from seed the first year with white, cream and rose blooms.
  • ‘Foxy’ common foxglove.

    ‘Gloxinioides’ is a strain raised in the late 1880’s in the town of Shirley in Surrey, England, so is often given the cultivar name ‘The Shirley’, with tall, dense spikes of flowers in cream, salmon, pink and purple. It was awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993.

  • D. x mertonensis (strawberry foxglove) was created in 1925 by gardeners at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in England by crossing D. purpurea with D. grandiflora, a short-lived perennial with yellow flowers. It has coppery-pink flowers that are larger than either parent. It comes true from seed, blooms for several years, and is hardy to zone 3.
  • ‘Sutton’s Apricot’, another RHS Award of Garden Merit winner (1993), has creamy salmon pink flowers.

– Susan Mahr, University of Wisconsin – Madison

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Additional Information


  1. I’ve always loved these, but like many of the other commenters, have had some trouble getting them to come back. Did not know these seeds need light to germinate and also was not aware of foxglove’s toxic nature.

  2. I didn’t know foxglove was biennial, which explains why my plants never came back, despite 2 million seeds! I will try again this fall with seeds, if I can get them, and spread them over the part-sun part-shade bits of my flower beds. I really like them despite their slightly scary reputation.

  3. As a nurse I knew foxglove was a poisonous plant so I did not use it. Now that the kids are bigger I plan to start it and enjoy the beauty that it brings. I have friends with foxglove in their gardens and love all the different colors. I did not know that it is invasive and you do need to let some go to seed to keep the plant going.

  4. I’d like to try to find and plant the Gloxinioids cultivar, which won the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993. The fact that it comes in cream, pink and purple would add much color to my garden. Very beautiful plant that attracts hummingbirds is also a plus for me!

  5. I did not realize the Foxglove was a member of the plantain family. I could see it ftom the pics when looking at the foliage at the base of the plant. I have tried it in my perennial bed at least once but w/no luck w/its return. I just might have pulled it accidentally w/the rest of the weeds!

  6. I just received 2 foxglove plants. I didn’t realize that the leaves are toxic to touch. Good information to have. Seems like they may need staking.

  7. I learned that the seeds need light to germinate and rabbits don’t like them

  8. 1-2 million seeds per plant is an amazing amount. Therefore, I am surprised that all the foxgloves I have had, fail to come back after only a few years. I am wondering if it is a soil issue, even thought the article said that it will tolerate and grow in most soils. Also, learning that it grows in full sun tells me that the North side of my house was not a good choice. Lastly, I am wondering if it related to milkweed at all, since both plants contain cardiac glycosides.

  9. I was surprised to read other comments…I am not the only one who can’t seem to grow this gorgeous plant! Strangely, I’ve never heard that it’s hard to grow. In fact, it’s considered invasive in some areas. So I’m encouraged, after reading the article, to try it again.

  10. I did not realize that purple foxglove is an invasive weed in many places. I was totally amazed when the article said that each plant can produce 1-2 million seeds.

  11. It was interesting to read that they are considered invasive in New Zealand and elsewhere, as I have never been able to grow them. When I purchase them, I have been treating them as annuals. It is disappointing because I love the large spotted plants!! In another article it showed a picture of them growing along the raodside like a weed in England. Oh that we should be so lucky!!

  12. 1-2 million seeds per plant, wow! I learned it is the leaf not the flower in which heart failure medication is made from.

  13. I did not know the proper name and now see the connection with digitalis or heart stimulant used before synthetic drugs used currently. Producing 1-2 million seeds is astounding. I did know that The seeds need light to germinate.

  14. Very interesting plant and informative article. I am intrigued by the height of the plant and using it in the back of my garden, though I am a little nervous about the information about possibly causing issues with people with sensitive skin. I might need to find someone with some foxglove that I can test before planting a large amount of it. Great seed starting tips.

  15. I have grown these in the past and l learned that will also grow in light shade

  16. Didnt realize they were biennials. They have always intrigued me. I never have had luck growing them. Enjoyed the article.

  17. I have had a horrible time trying to get Digitalis to take in my garden in Racine. Reading about how they aren’t real finnicky about soil. I wonder if I fussed too much over them. I tried my hand at lupines this year because I love the shape and height. I love to try ‘Sutton’s Apricot’. Surprised that they are biennials. So that was very enlightening. Definitely will give this one a try if I can still get the seed to start the planting in the fall.

  18. I have this plant in my pollinator garden at UW Ext in Appleton, WI. It often just flops over before it fully blooms. It’s been planted for 2 years. Do you recommend crowding so it stands up?

  19. Pretty flower. I think I also had trouble getting it started and keeping it growing. I am always a little leary of growing plants that may become invasive. Unfortunately, usually find out after they have been planted.

  20. I had fox glove growing at a former home and was able to gather seeds every year. I have since moved to a new home and have not found a source of seeds locally. Does anyone have some seeds or know where to get seeds locally in the La Crosse area?

  21. Have tried unsuccessfully to grow these plants several times, in different regions of the state. They always seem to die before flowering. They must be very sensitive to excessively moist soil conditions. I really like the tall, spotted purple flowers.

  22. I really like this plant. Had several years ago before I knew how to care for them. Now with this article I will try again.

  23. I’m surprised to learn it can be invasive in some areas- especially since I have had trouble getting it started!

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