Butterflyweed, Asclepias tuberosa

Butterflyweed, Asclepias tuberosa.

Butterflyweed is a long-lived herbaceous perennial in the milkweed family (Apocynaceae, formerly Asclepidaceae) native to much of North America except the northwest, from eastern Canada south to Florida, west to the Dakotas down to Colorado and the southwest, except Nevada, into California, but is most widespread in the eastern half of the U.S. With other common names including butterfly milkweed, orange milkweed, pleurisy root and chigger flower, Asclepias tuberosa is found in prairies and meadows, open woods, along roads and other open areas in zones 3-9.

Butterflyweed has many narrow leaves on multiple ascending stems.

This bushy perennial grows an abundance of dark green foliage on multiple erect to ascending stems from a large taproot, forming a clump 1½ to 3 feet tall and wide. Its tough, woody, knobby root that can grow several feet deep was chewed by Native Americans as a cure for pleurisy and other pulmonary conditions. The lanceolate to oblong leaves are primarily alternate, often crowded together on the stout, hairy stems which are green to dull reddish-purple. Each leaf, up to 6 inches long, is sessile or with a very short petiole, pointed at the end and toothless on the margins. The upper surface is smooth and glossy, while the underside is finely hairy, especially along the veins, and lighter in color than the upper side. Unlike most members of the milkweed family, this species does not have milky sap. The leaves turn a dull yellow in fall before the stems die back to the ground for the winter. It is best not to cut the foliage back in fall, but wait until spring. Plants are slow to emerge late in the spring.

Large, flat to slightly dome-shaped umbels (clusters) of up to 25 bright orange star-shaped flowers are produced at the ends of hairy flowering stems or in upper leaf axils from late spring through summer. Each 3/8 inch wide fleshy flower has 5 reflexed petals (corolla) and a 5-parted crown (corona) of 5 curved horns protruding from hoods arching over a short white to light green column in the center.

Flowers are produced at the ends of stems (L), with buds changing from green to orange (LC) to open along the stems (C) for a showy display (RC) of many small 5-parted flowers (R).

Flower color is generally orange but can vary from orange to yellow or red.

These are generally all orange, but there are yellow or red cultivars (such as ‘Hello Yellow’ and ‘Gay Butterflies’) and naturally occurring populations, all usually with a yellow central column. Each cluster is 2-5 inches across, making an excellent landing platform for butterflies. There are also 5 hairy, light green sepals below the petals which are hidden when the flowers open. The flowers produce copious amounts of nectar so are very attractive to hummingbirds and many insects, not just butterflies, and can also be used as cut flowers. Deadheading may stimulate a second flush of flowers about a month later.

Butterflyweed is atttractive to many pollinators.

Successfully cross-pollinated flowers are followed by prominent, erect, narrow, spindle-shaped seed pods covered in short hairs (the fruit is a follicle). The 3-6 inch long, grayish-green pods split open when mature to release rows of hundreds of flattened, brown seeds, each with a narrow wing along the margins and a tuft of long, silky hairs (a pappus) at one end that aids in dispersal by wind. Butterflyweed may self-seed in the landscape if plants are allowed to go to seed; remove the pods before they split open to reduce self-seeding. The seed pods can be used in dried floral arrangements.

Butterflyweed can be used as a specimen plants in gardens.

This showy plant makes a great addition to home gardens, prairies, native plantings or for naturalizing, rain gardens, and butterfly gardens. They can be planted in masses or combined as an accent with other mid-sized perennials in the sunny border. The vivid orange color stands out, particularly in combination with blue or purple flowers, but some find the intense color hard to blend in some landscapes. Try combining butterfly weed with blue morning glories, globe thistle (Echinops spp.), Penstemon digitalis ‘Husker Red’, or purple speedwells (Veronica spicata or hybrids) in a mixed garden.

Butterflyweed is a great addition to meadows and prairie plantings.

It or works well with other native perennials such as yellow coreopsis (Coreopsis verticillata), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), goldenrod (Solidago spp.), blazing star (Liatris spp.), black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) and R.fulgida, and grasses such as little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) or prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) in a meadow or prairie. It is a larval host plant for several butterflies, including monarch (Danaus plexippus) and the related Queen butterfly (D. gilippus, although this species occurs primarily in Central America into the southern US, but may occasionally stray into the Midwest), so you may want to position the plant in the landscape where won’t be an eyesore if it is eaten ragged by caterpillars.

Butterflyweed needs full sun to thrive.

This plant needs full sun to bloom. Although it prefers sandy soil, butterflyweed grows in almost any type of soil, including gravel or clay, as long as it is well-drained. It is very drought tolerant once established. This plant is not favored by deer, but is quite likely to be infested with aphids – most often the bright yellow oleander aphid with black legs (an introduced species native to the Mediterranean but almost cosmopolitan in distribution now). Small numbers of these insects will not harm the plant, and many times are eaten by lady beetles or other predators. Large populations can be managed with insecticidal soap or reduced by knocking the insects off the plant with a forceful stream of water. Rabbits may eat the plants.

A young butterflyweed plant.

This species is easy to grow from seed, but can also be propagated from root cuttings. Cut the taproot into 2-inch sections in fall and plant in a vertical orientation. Plants will bloom from seed in 2-3 years, and do not transplant well because of the deep taproot. Sow outdoors in place after frost in the fall, in a cold frame in early spring, or start indoors with bottom heat in late winter (8-10 weeks before average last frost) after 1 month moist stratification to carefully transplant outside later. Using 3-4 inch deep containers, particularly with separate cells, will allow the roots to grow deeper and seedlings can be more readily transplanted without disturbing the roots as much.

– Susan Mahr, University of Wisconsin – Madison


Download Article as PDF


Additional Information

24 thoughts on “Butterflyweed, Asclepias tuberosa

  1. I have recently cleared a new little area that is sandy, well drained and frequently passed by deer. This sounds like a good choice for attracting butterflies as well as being such a cheerful color.

  2. Hello
    I have a question I have not been able to find an answer to. I hope someone here can help me. It would be greatly appreciated.
    My sister gave me 2 Asclepias tuberosa seedlings that she started. She had purchased a package of a orange and yellow mix. I planted the 2 of them next to each other in 2015.
    In 2016 both plants flowered, but no seed pods formed. 1 plant has orange flowers, the other has yellow.
    This year the yellow plant set seed pods, but not the orange plant.
    My question is: Will the seeds produced by the yellow plant turn out to be yellow plants as well. I’m not sure how this works with Asclepias considering I have the 2 different colored plants next to each other.
    Thank you. Sincerely, Nina

  3. I will try growing this next year. Looking forward to eventually seeing more butterflies and hummingbirds. Nice to read deer don’t like them.

  4. I have sandy soil where I live now and would love to try this beautiful orange color Butterfly plant. I think it would look nice near blue morning glories. I have been looking for plants that attract butterflies and hummingbirds.

  5. Butterflyweed was chewed by Native Americans as a cure for pleurisy and other pulmonary conditions. Plants are slow to emerge in the spring so wait to cut foliage back until then. Butterfyweed is very drought tolerant and will grow in any well drained type of soil.

  6. Read for education hours. Glad to hear this plant attracts pollinators and is deer resistant. Bunnies remain problematic. Seems like a low maintenance plant.

  7. This article gave me a few tips for propagating this plant. I buy one or two of these plants every year with marginal survival after a few years. I will try the native species from a prairie nursery from here on in.

  8. I have planted butterfly bushes in the past but they don’t last. They don’t come back the second year. I will try milkweed next year.

    • I was ready to add this to my list of naturalizing plants and shrubs, until I read the part about rabbits eating it. Too bad, it is a perfect addition otherwise and I love that it attracts pollenizers.

    • Hello
      This article states that Rabbits ‘may’ eat the plants.
      I have not had a problem with the Rabbits that live around my area bothering my Butterfly weed.
      Hope they continue to leave it alone.
      I love the Hello Yellow and orange plants that I have.

  9. Always a better understanding. Altho, I have a lot of the plant returning this year. A good bit of information.
    Cathie Nelson

  10. I will look for the butterfly plant for a sunny side butterfly garden on the south side of my home. It is interesting to hear of the Native American usage of this plant.

  11. I did not know that the native milkweed did not produce the milky sap. I also found it interesting it does not like to be transplanted as it has such a deep root. Now I know why the one I put in last year struggled.

  12. I enjoyed your article. I did have a butterfly bush several years ago, but it only last thru the 2nd year. I’ll try this plant this coming year. The flowers are irresistibly cheerful! I did not know that the taproot could be divided and new plants could be started from that portion of the root. Thank you!

  13. I was happy to read about this plant. I recieved the Orange butterfly weed as a gift. I performed marginally in its first year. I am hopeful because it is native that it will do better this year. I am also glad to hear that it is a late comer in the spring. Thank You Patty King

  14. I’ve been telling people in my monarch butterfly programs that Butterfly weed was chosen as the Perennial for the year 2017–not 2016….Am I wrong?

  15. I am happy to learn you can propagate Butterfly weed through root cuttings. I have not had success with the cultivars I have planted, but the native species is thriving, even in the heavy clay portions of my flower beds.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

While the University of Wisconsin Colleges and the University of Wisconsin - Extension do not regularly review content posted to social media sites, the administration shall have the right to remove any content from any official site for any reason, including but not limited to content deemed threatening, obscene, a violation of intellectual property rights or privacy laws, or otherwise injurious or illegal.

Public opinions/comments posted on this site do not necessarily reflect those of UW-Extension/UW Colleges.